EUROPEAN UNION A PEACEFUL EUROPE – THE BEGINNING OF COOPERATION
The European Union is a unique economic and political union between Twenty Eight (28) European countries that together cover much of the continent. The predecessor of the EU was created in the aftermath of the Second World
War. Initial steps were to foster economic cooperation: the idea being that countries that trade with one another become economically interdependent and so more likely to avoid conflict. The result was the European Economic Community (EEC), created in 1958, and initially increasing economic cooperation between six countries: Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Since then, 22 other members joined and a huge single
market (also known as the internal market) has been created and continues to develop towards its full potential.
What began as a purely economic union has evolved into an organization spanning policy areas, from climate, environment and health to external relations and security, justice and migration. A name change from the European
Economic Community (EEC) to the European Union (EU) in 1993 reflected this.
Stability, a single currency, mobility andgrowth: The EU has delivered more than half a century of peace, stability and prosperity, helped raise living standards and launched a single European currency: the euro. More than
340 million EU citizens in 19 countries nowuse it as their currency and enjoy its benefits. Thanks to the abolition of border controls between EU countries, people can travel freely throughout most of the continent. And it has become much easier to live, work and travel abroad in Europe. All EU citizens have the right and freedom to choose in which EU country they want to study, work or retire. Every member country must treat EU citizens in exactly the same way as its own citizens for employment, social security and tax purposes. The EUs main economic engine is the single
market. It enables most goods, services, money and people to move freely. The EU aims to develop this huge resource to other areas like energy, knowledge and capital markets to ensure that Europeans can draw the maximum
benefit from it.
Transparent and Democratic Institutions:The EU remains focused on making its governing institutions more transparent and democratic. More powers have been given to the directly elected European Parliament, while
national parliaments play a greater role, working alongside the European institutions. In turn, European citizens have an ever-increasing number of channels for taking part in the political process. The EU is governed by the principle of representative democracy, with citizens directly represented at Union level in the EuropeanParliament and member states represented in the European Council and the Council of the EU.